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Conservation Research Institute



Dr Anthony Waldron is currently the Lead Author on the 30 x 30 Economic Analysis project, which brings together over 100 researchers across ten disciplines to examine the economic impacts of the proposed CBD target to protect 30% of the planet for nature.  The project is funded by National Geographic and the Campaign for Nature and he is based out of the Cambridge Conservation Initiative. He has researched and taught for Oxford University (Zoology Department), National University of Singapore (BioEconomics Group), Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (as Visiting Professor of Conservation and Chocolate), University of Illinois (Social and Political science Department), University of Georgia (Odum School of Ecology), and University of British Columbia. He was previously Conservation Director of the NGO Fundacion Maquipucuna (Ecuador). He has two degrees in the humanities (English literature and discourse) from Cambridge University, a BSc in Ecology and a Masters degree in Environmental Technology (focused on economics, law and ecological management) from Imperial College London, and a doctorate from University of British Columbia (combining phylogenetics, macroevolution and biogeography). He was also Director of Communications for the Canadian Union of Public Employees, a journalist in South America, and a computer programmer and cabin crew performance adviser for British Airways. He has lived and worked in 8 countries and started his own consultancy (The Working Ant) on biodiversity economics and finance in 2018.


I work across disciplines to identify how the needs of the economy, food security and biodiversity might be co-achieved. I also specialise in global conservation finance and its impact, and in agroforestry systems. Most of my work has been global in scale, but I have also worked directly with smallholders and villages in lower-income countries.


Key publications: 

Protecting 30% of the planet for nature: costs, benefits and economic implications. A Waldron and 112 others: (2020)

Targeting global conservation funding to limit immediate biodiversity declines. A Waldron, AO Mooers, DC Miller, N Nibbelink, D Redding, TS Kuhn, et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110 (29), 12144-12148, 2013

Reductions in global biodiversity loss predicted from conservation spending. A Waldron, DC Miller, D Redding, A Mooers, TS Kuhn, N Nibbelink, et al. Nature 551 (7680), 364-367, 2017

Conserving biodiversity through certification of tropical agroforestry crops at local and landscape scales. T Tscharntke, JC Milder, G Schroth, Y Clough, F DeClerck, A Waldron, et al. Conservation Letters 8 (1), 14-23, 2015

Null models of geographic range size evolution reaffirm its heritability. A Waldron, The American Naturalist 170 (2), 221-231, 2007

Conservation through Chocolate: a win‐win for biodiversity and farmers in Ecuador's lowland tropics. A Waldron, R Justicia, L Smith, M Sanchez, Conservation Letters 5 (3), 213-221, 2012

Agroforestry can enhance food security while meeting other sustainable development goals. A Waldron, D Garrity, Y Malhi, C Girardin, DC Miller, N Seddon, Tropical Conservation Science 10, 1940082917720667, 2015

TRY plant trait database–enhanced coverage and open access. J Kattge, G Bönisch, S Díaz, et al. Global change biology 26 (1), 119-188, 2020

Lineages that cheat death: surviving the squeeze on range size. A Waldron, Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution 64 (8), 2278-2292, 2010

Making biodiversity‐friendly cocoa pay: combining yield, certification, and REDD for shade management. A Waldron, R Justicia, LE Smith, Ecological Applications 25 (2), 361-372, 2015

How effective are on-farm conservation land management strategies for preserving ecosystem services in developing countries? A systematic map protocol. J Thorn, J Snaddon, A Waldron, K Kok, W Zhou, S Bhagwat, K Willis. Environmental Evidence 4 (1), 11, 2015

Turkey's biodiversity funding on the rise. A Waldron, ÇH Şekercioğlu, DC Miller, AO Mooers, JT Roberts. Science 341 (6151), 1173-1173, 2013

A large‐scale assessment of plant dispersal mode and seed traits across human‐modified Amazonian forests. JE Hawes, ICG Vieira, LFS Magnago, E Berenguer, J Ferreira, et al. Journal of Ecology 108, 1373-1385, 2020

Conservation attention necessary across at least 44% of Earth's terrestrial area to safeguard biodiversity. JR Allan, HP Possingham, SC Atkinson, A Waldron, M Di Marco. bioRxiv, 839977, 2019

Reproductive site selection in a bromeliad breeding treefrog suggests complex evolutionary trade-offs. ASF Lantyer-Silva, A Waldron, J Zina, M Solé, PloS one 13 (12), e0207131, 2018

Geographical region

Australasia / Oceania
Central America
Central Asia
East Africa
East Asia
North Africa
North America
North Asia
South America
South Asia
South East Asia
Southern Africa
West Africa


Departments and institutes: 
Research keywords: 
Climate Change
Landscape Ecology