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Conservation Research Institute



After studying for 10 years in Cambridge I was a research fellow at the Institute of Zoology in London and then a lecturer at the University of Sheffield. In 1998 I returned to the Zoology Department, where I teach conservation science, and help run the Conservation Science Group.


My research focuses on the costs and benefits of conservation, how best to reconcile conservation and farming, the reasons why nature is being lost, and examining what works in conservation. I tackle these issues through fieldwork, analyses of large databases, and modeling, and by working wherever possible with colleagues in other disciplines and with conservation practitioners. I co-founded the Cambridge Conservation Forum; am closely involved in the Cambridge Conservation Initiative; and with Rhys GreenRosie Trevelyan, Ed Turner and Shireen Green run the annual Student Conference on Conservation Science; and helped establish Earth Optimism and the Cambridge Centre for Carbon Credits (4C) 

Andrew Balmford is an Affiliate of the Gund Institute for Ecological Economics, University of Vermont, USA:


Key publications: 

Balmford, A. 2021. Concentrating vs spreading our footprint: how to meet humanity’s needs at least cost to nature. J. Zoology 315: 79-109. DOI:10.1111/jzo.12920

Balmford, A., T. Amano, H. Bartlett, D. Chadwick, A. Collins, D. Edwards, R. Field, P. Garnsworthy, R. Green, P. Smith, H. Waters, A. Whitmore, D.M. Broom, J. Chara, T. Finch, E. Garnett, A. Gathorne-Hardy, J. Hernandez-Medrano, M. Herrero, F. Hua , A. Latawiec, T. Misselbrook, B. Phalan, B.I. Simmons, T. Takahashi, J. Vause, E. zu Ermgassen & R. Eisner. 2018. The environmental costs and benefits of high-yield farming. Nature Sustainability 1: 477-485.

Phalan, B., R.E. Green, L.V. Dicks, G. Dotta, C. Feniuk, A. Lamb, B.B.N. Strassburg, D.R. Williams, E.K.H.J. zu Ermgassen & A. Balmford. 2016. How can higher-yielding farming help to spare nature? Science 351: 450-451.

Balmford, A. 2012. Wild hope: on the frontlines of conservation success. University of Chicago Press.

Balmford, A., Green, R. & Phalan, B. 2012. What conservationists need to know about farming. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B2792714–2724.

Phalan, B., Onial, M., Balmford, A. & Green. R.E. 2011. Reconciling food production and biodiversity conservation: land sharing and land sparing compared. Science 333: 1289–1291.

Rodrigues, A.S.L., Ewers, R.M., Parry, L., Souza Jr., C., Vérissimo, A. & Balmford, A. 2009. Boom-and-bust development patterns across the Amazon deforestation frontier. Science 324: 1435–1437.

Green, R.E., Cornell, S., Scharlemann, J.P.W. & Balmford, A. 2005. Farming and the fate of wild nature. Science 307: 550–555.

Balmford, A., Bruner, A., Cooper, P., Costanza, R., Farber, S., Green, R. E., Jenkins, M., Jefferiss, P., Jessamy, V., Madden, J., Munro, K., Myers, N., Naeem, S., Paavola, J., Rayment, M., Rosendo, S., Roughgarden, J., Trumper K. &  Turner, R. K. 2002. Why conserving wild nature makes economic sense. Science 297: 950–953.

Balmford, A., Clegg, L., Coulson T. & Taylor, J. 2002. Why conservationists should heed Pokémon. Science 295: 2367.

Balmford, A., Moore, J.L., Brooks, T., Burgess, N., Hansen, L.A., Williams, P.H. & Rahbek, C. 2001. Conservation conflicts across Africa. Science 2912616–2619.

Other publications: 


  • Alves-Pinto, H., Cordeiro, C., Geldmann, J., Jonas, H., Gaiarsag, M.P., Balmford, A., Watson, J., Latawiec, A.E. & Strassburg, B. 2022. The role of different governance regimes in reducing native vegetation conversion and promoting regrowth in the Brazilian Amazon. Biological Conservation 267: 109473 doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2022.109473
  • Balmford, A., Laurie, A. & Whitten, J. 2022. The Tony Whitten Conservation Award 2021. Oryx 56: 1.
  • Balmford, A., 2022. The Hairy Rhinoceros: History, ecology and some lessons for management of the last Asian megafauna. Pachyderm, 63, pp.215-216. PACHYDERM
  • Bartlett, H., M. Holmes, S. Petrovan, D. Williams, J.L.N. Wood & A. Balmford. 2022. Understanding the relative risks of zoonosis emergence under contrasting approaches to meeting livestock product demand. Roy. Soc. Open Sci  9(6): 211573doi: 10.1098/rsos.211573
  • Dobson, A., Hopcraft, G., Mduma, S., Ogutu, J.O., Fryxell, J., Anderson, T.M., Archibald, S., Lehmann, C., Poole, J., Caro, T., Borgerhoff Mulder, M., Holt, R.D., Berger, J., Rubenstein, D.I., Kahumbu, P., Chidumayo, E.N., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Schluter, D., Otto, S., Balmford, A., Wilcove, D., Pimm, S., Veldman, J.W., Olff, H., Noss, R., Holdo, R., Beale, C., Hempson, G., Kiwango, Y, Lindenmayer, D., Bond, W., Ritchie, M., Sinclair, A.R.E. 2022. Savannas are vital but overlooked carbon sinks. Science 375.6579 (2022): 392-392. doi: 10.1126/science.abn4482
  • Eklund, J., Jones, J.P., Räsänen, M., Geldmann, J., Jokinen, A.P., Pellegrini, A., Rakotobe, D., Rakotonarivo, O.S., Toivonen, T. and Balmford, A., 2022. Elevated fires during COVID-19 lockdown and the vulnerability of protected areas. Nature Sustainability, pp.1-7. doi:/10.1038/s41893-022-00884-x
  • Garnett, E. & Balmford, A. 2022. The vital role of organisations in protecting climate and nature. Nature Human Behaviour doi: 10.1038/s41562-021-01260-z
  • Guizar‐Coutiño, A., Jones, J.P., Balmford, A., Carmenta, R. and Coomes, D.A., 2022. A global evaluation of the effectiveness of voluntary REDD+ projects at reducing deforestation and degradation in the moist tropics. Conservation Biology, p.e13970. doi: 10.1111/cobi.13970
  • Hua, F., Bruijnzeel, L.A, Meli, P., Martin, P.A., Zhang, J., Nakagawa, S., Miao, X., Wang, W., McEvoy, C., Peña-Arancibia, J.L., Brancalion, P.H.S., Smith, P., Edwards, D.P. & Balmford, A. 2022. The biodiversity and ecosystem service contributions and trade-offs of forest restoration approaches. Science 376: 6595 doi: 10.1126/science.abl4649
  • Liu, J., Balmford, A. & Bawa, K.S. 2022. Fuel, food and fertilizer shortage will hit biodiversity and climate. Nature 604(425). doi: 10.1038/d41586-022-01061-y
  • Smith KG, Scheelbeek P, Balmford A and Garnett EE. 2022. Discrepancies between two long-term dietary datasets in the United Kingdom (UK) [version 2; peer review: 2 approved]. Wellcome Open Res 2022, 6:350
  • Strassburg, B.B., Iribarrem, A., Beyer, H.L., Cordeiro, C.L., Crouzeilles, R., Jakovac, C., Junqueira, A.B., Lacerda, E., Latawiec, A.E., Balmford, A. and Brooks, T.M., 2022. Reply to: The risks of overstating the climate benefits of ecosystem restoration. Nature, 609(7926), pp.E4-E6.
  • Strassburg, B.B., Iribarrem, A., Beyer, H.L., Cordeiro, C.L., Crouzeilles, R., Jakovac, C., Junqueira, A.B., Lacerda, E., Latawiec, A.E., Balmford, A. and Brooks, T.M., 2022. Reply to: Restoration prioritization must be informed by marginalized people. Nature, 607(7918), pp.E7-E9.


  • Ahrends, A., Bulling, M.T., Platts, P.J., Swetnam, R., Ryan, C., Doggart, N., Hollingsworth, P.M., Marchant, R., Balmford, A., Harris, D.J., Gross-Camp, N., Sumbi, P., Munishi, P., Madoffe, S., Mhoro, B., Leonard, C., Bracebridge, C., Doody, K., Wilkins, V., Owen, N., Marshall, A.R., Schaafsma, M., Pfliegner., K., Jones, T.,  Robinson, J., Topp-Jørgensen, E., Brink, H. & Burgess, N.D. 2021. Detecting and predicting forest degradation: A comparison of ground surveys and remote sensing in Tanzanian forests. Plants, People, Planet 3(3): 268-281 doi: 10.1002/ppp3.10189
  • Alves-Pinto, H., Geldmann, J., Jonas, H., Maioli, V., Balmford, A., Latawiec, A.E., Crouzeilles, R. & Strassburg, B. 2021. Opportunities and challenges of other effective area-based conservation measures (OECMs) for biodiversity conservation. Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation 19(2): 115-120 doi: 10.1016/j.pecon.2021.01.004
  • Balmford, A. 2021. Concentrating vs. spreading our footprint: how to meet humanity's needs at least cost to nature Journal of Zoology 315(2): 79-109 doi: 10.1111/jzo.12920
  • Balmford, A., Bradbury, R.B., Bauer, J.M., Broad, S., Burgess, G., Burgman, M., Byerly, H., Clayton, S., Espelosin, D., Ferraro, P.J., Fisher, B., Garnett, E.E., Jones, J.P.G., Marteau, T.M., Otieno, M., Polasky, S., Ricketts, T.H., Sandbrook, C., Sullivan-Wiley, K., Trevelyan, R., van der Linden, S., Veríssimo, D. & Nielsen, K.S. 2021. Making more effective use of human behavioural science in conservation interventions. Biological Conservation 261: 109256 doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2021.109256
  • Balmford, A., Laurie, A., & Whitten, J. 2021. The Tony Whitten Conservation Award 2020. Oryx55(2): 169-169. doi: 10.1017/S0030605320001398
  • Betts, M.G., Phalan, B.T., Wolf, C., Baker, S.C., Messier, C., Puettmann, K.J., Green, R., Harris, S.H., Edwards, D.P., Lindenmayer, D.B. & Balmford, A. 2021. Producing wood at least cost to biodiversity: integrating Triad and sharing–sparing approaches to inform forest landscape management. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 96(4): 1301-1317 doi: 10.1111/brv.12703
  • Bradbury, R.B., Butchart, S.H.M., Fisher, B., Hughes, F.M.R., Ingwall-King, L., MacDonald, M.A., Merriman, J.C., Peh, K.S.-H., Pellier, A.-S., Thomas, D.H.L., Trevelyan, R. & Balmford, A. 2021. The economic consequences of conserving or restoring sites for nature. Nature Sustainability doi: 10.1038/s41893-021-00692-9
  • Edwards, D.O., Cerullo, G.R., Chomba, S., Worthington, T.A., Balmford, A.P., Chazdon, R.L. & Harrison, R.D. 2021. Upscaling tropical restoration to deliver environmental benefits and socially equitable outcomes. Current Biology 31(19) doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.08.058
  • Emogor, C.A., Ingram, D.J., Coad, L., Worthington, T.A., Dunn, A., Imong, I. & Balmford, A.P. 2021. The scale of Nigeria's involvement in the trans-national illegal pangolin trade: Temporal and spatial patterns and the effectiveness of wildlife trade regulations. Biological Conservation 264:109365 doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2021.109365
  • Finch, T., Day, B., Massimino D., Redhead, J., Field, R., Balmford, A., Green, R.E. & Peach W. 2021. Evaluating spatially explicit sharing‐sparing scenarios for multiple environmental outcomes. Journal of Applied Ecology 58(3): 655-666 doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.13785
  • Garnett, E.E., Balmford, A., Marteau, T.M., Pilling, M.A. & Sandbrook, C. 2021. Price of change: does a small alteration to the price of meat and vegetarian options affect their sales? Journal of Environmental Psychology 75: 101589 doi: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2021.101589
  • Geldmann, J., Deguignet, M., Balmford, A., Burgess, N.D., Dudley, N., Hockings, M., Kingston, N., Kilmmek, H., Lewis, A.H., Rahbek, C., Stolton, S., Vincent, C., Wells, S., Woodley, S. & Watson, J.E.M. 2021. Essential indicators for measuring site-based conservation effectiveness in the post-2020 global biodiversity framework. Conservation Letters 14(4): e12792 doi: 10.1111/conl.12792
  • Harfoot, M.B.J., Johnston, A., Balmford, A., Burgess, N.D., Butchart, S.H.M., Dias, M.P., Hazin, C., Hilton-Taylor, C., Hoffmann, M., Isaac, N.J.B., Iversen, L.L., Outhwaite, C.L., Visconti, P. & Geldmann, J. 2021. Using the IUCN Red List to map threats to terrestrial vertebrates at global scale. Nature Ecology & Evolution 5: 1510-1519 doi: 10.1038/s41559-021-01542-9
  • Miller, E.F., Green, R.E., Balmford, A., Maisano-Delser, P., Beyer, R., Somvielle, M., Leonardi, M., Amos, W. & Manica, A. 2021. Bayesian Skyline Plots disagree with range size changes based on Species Distribution Models for Holarctic birds. Molecular Ecology 30(16): 3993-4004 doi: 10.1111/mec.16032
  • Nielsen, K.S., Marteau, T.M., Bauer, J.M., Bradbury, R.B., Broad, S., Burgess, G., Burgman, M., Byerly, H., Clayton, S., Espelosin, D., Ferraro, P.J., Fisher, B., Garnett, E.E., Jones, J.P.G., Otieno, M., Polasky, S., Ricketts, T.H., Trevelyan, R., van der Linden, S., Verissimo, D. & Balmford, A. 2021. Biodiversity conservation as a promising frontier for behavioural science. Nature Human Behaviour 5: 550-556 doi: 10.1038/s41562-021-01109-5
  • Smith, K.G., Scheelbeck, P., Balmford, A. & Garnett, E.E. 2021. Discrepancies between two long-term dietary datasets in the United Kingdom (UK). Wellcome Open Res6: 350.
  • The Royal Society 2021. Biodiversity – evidence for action. Royal Society, London. "Biodiversity – evidence for action" pdf


  • Balmford, A., Fisher, B., Mace, G.M., Wilcove, D.S. & Balmford, B. 2020. Analogies and lessons from COVID-19 for tackling the extinction and climate crises. Cell Press 30(17):R969-R971 doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2020.06.084
  • Cooke, S.A., Balmford, A., Donald, P.F., Newson, S.E. & Johnston, A. 2020. Roads as a contributor to landscape-scale variation in bird communities. Springer Nature 11: 3125 doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-16899-x
  • Cooke, S.C., Balmford, A., Johnston, A., Massimino, D., Newson, S.E. & Donald, P.F. 2020. Road exposure and the detectability of birds in field surveys. Ibis 162(3): 885-901. doi: 10.1111/ibi.12787
  • Cooke, S.C., Balmford, A., Johnston, A., Newson, S.E., & Donald, P.F. 2020. Variation in abundances of common bird species associated with roads. Journal of Applied Ecology 57(7): 1271-1282 doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.13614
  • dos Santos, J.S., Feltran-Barbieri, R., Fonte, E.S., Balmford, A., Maioli, V., Latawiec, A., Strassburg, B.B.N. & Phalan, B.T. 2020. Characterising the spatial distribution of opportunities and constraints for land sparing in Brazil. Scientific Reports 10: 1946. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-58770-5
  • Durán, A.P., Green, J.M.H., West, C.D., Visconti, P., Burgess, N.D., Virah-Sawmy, M. & Balmford, A. 2020. A practical approach to measuring the biodiversity impacts of land conversion. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 11(8): 910-921 doi: 10.1111/2041-210X.13427
  • Garnett, E.E., Marteau, T.M., Sandbrook, C., Pilling, M.A. & Balmford, A. 2020 Order of meals at the counter and distance between options affect student cafeteria vegetarian sales. Nat Food 1: 485–488. doi: 10.1038/s43016-020-0132-8
  • Finch, T., Gillings, S. Massimino, D. Brereton, T. Redhead, J. Pywell, R. Field, R. Balmford, A. Green, R. & Peach, W. 2020. Assessing the utility of land sharing and land sparing for birds, butterflies and ecosystem services in lowland England. Natural England Commissioned Report NECR280.
  • Finch, T., Green, R.E., Massimino, D., Peach, W.J. & Balmford, A. 2020. Optimising nature conservation outcomes for a given region-wide level of food production. Journal of Applied Ecology 57(5): 985-994. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.13594
  • Geldmann, J., Alves-Pinto, H., Amano, T., Bartlett, H., Christie, A.P., Collas, L., Cooke, S.C., Correa, R., Cripps, I., Doherty, A., Finch, T., Garnett, E.E., Hua, F., Jones, J.P.G., Kasoar, T., MacFarlane, D., Martin, P.A., Mukherjee, N., Mumby, H.S., Payne, C., Petrovan, S.O., Rocha, R., Russell, K., Simmons, B.I., Wauchope, H.S., Worthington, T.A., Trevelyan, R., Green, R. & Balmford, A. 2020. Insights from two decades of the Student Conference on Conservation Science. Biological Conservation 243: 108478. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2020.108478
  • Payne, C., Badolo, A., Sagnon, B., Cox, S., Pearson, S., Sanon, A., Bationo, F. & Balmford, A. 2020. Effects of defoliation by the edible caterpillar “chitoumou” (Cirina butyrospermi) on harvests of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) and growth of maize (Zea mays). Agrofor. Syst. 94: 231-240. doi: 10.1007/s10457-019-00385-5
  • Payne, C.L.R., Badolo, A., Cox, S., Sagnon, B., Dobermann, D., Milbank, C., Scarborough, P., Sanon, A., Bationo, F. & Balmford, A. 2020. The contribution of the edible caterpillar Cirina butyrospermi, to the food security of smallholder farmers in southwestern Burkina Faso. Food Sec12: 221-234.  doi: 10.1007/s12571-019-00994-z
  • Smith, P. & Balmford, A. 2020. Climate change: ‘no get out of jail free card’. Veterinary Record, 186(2): 71. doi: 10.1136/vr.m190
  • Strassburg, B.B.N., Iribarrem, A., Beyer, H.L., Corderio, C.L., Crouzeilles, R., Jakovac, C., Junqueria, A., Lacerda, E., Latawiec, A.E., Balmford, A., Brooks, T.M., Butchart, S., Chazdon, R.L., Erb, K-H., Brancalion, P., Buchanan, G., Cooper, D., Diaz, S., Donald, P, Kapos, V., Leclere, D., Miles, L., Obersteiner, M., Plutzar, C., de M. Scaramuzza, C.A., Scarano, F.R. & Visconti, P. 2020. Global priority areas for ecosystem restoration. Nature 586: 724-729 doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2784-9
  • Waldron, A., Adams, V., Allan, J., Arnell, A., Asner, G., Atkinson, S., Baccini, A., Baillie, E.M., Balmford, A. et al. 2020. Protecting 30% of the planet for nature: costs, benefits and economic implications. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
  • Williams, D.R., Balmford, A. & Wilcove, D.S. 2020. The past and future role of conservation science in saving biodiversity. Conservation Letters 13(4): e12720 doi: 10.1111/conl.1272


  • Balmford, B., Green, R., Onial, M., Phalan, B. & Balmford, A. 2019. How imperfect can land sparing be before land sharing is more favourable for wild species? J. Appl. Ecol. 56(1): 73-84. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.13282
  • Donald, P.F., Buchanan, G.M., Balmford, A., et al. 2019. The prevalence, characteristics and effectiveness of Aichi Target 11’s “other effective area-based conservation measures” (OECMs) in Key Biodiversity Areas. Conservation Letters 12(5): e12659. doi: 10.1111/conl.12659
  • Feniuk, C., Balmford, A., Green, R. 2019. Land sparing to make space for species dependent on natural habitats and High Nature Value farmland. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 289: 1090. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2019.1483
  • Finch, T., Gillings, S., Green, R.E., Massimino, D., Peach, W.J., & Balmford, A. 2019. Bird conservation and the land sharing‐sparing continuum in farmland‐dominated landscapes of lowland England. Conserv. Biol 33(5): 1045-1055. doi: 10.1111/cobi.13316
  • Finch, T., Gillings, S., Massimino, D., Brereton, T., Redhead, J., Pywell, R., Field, R., Balmford, A., Green, R. & Peach, W. 2019. Assessing the utility of land sharing and land sparing for birds, butterflies and ecosystem services in lowland England. Natural England Commissioned Report 280, Natural England, York.
  • Fisher, B., Marteau, T. & Balmford, A. 2019. Use nudges to change behaviour towards conservation. Nature 569: 630. doi: 10.1038/d41586-019-01662-0
  • Garnett, E., Balmford, A., Sandbrook, C., Pilling, M.A. & Marteau, T.M. 2019. Impact of increasing vegetarian availability on meal selection and sales in cafeterias. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116(42):​ 20923-20929. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1907207116
  • Geldmann, J., Manica, A., Burgess, N.D., Coad, L. & Balmford, A. 2019. A global-level assessment of the effectiveness of protected areas at resisting anthropogenic pressures. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences116(46): 23209-23215 doi: 0.1073/pnas.1908221116
  • Green, J.M.H., Croft, S.A., Durán, A.P., Balmford, A., Burgess, N.D., Fick, S., Gardner, T.A., Godar, J., Suavet, C., Virah-Sawmy, M., Young, L.E. & West, C.D. 2019. Linking global drivers of agricultural trade to on-the-ground impacts on biodiversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116(46): 23202-23208. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1905618116
  • Grogan, J., Plumptre, A., Mabonga, J., Nampindo, S., Mustapha, N. & Balmford, A. 2019. Ranging Behaviour of Uganda’s Elephants. African Journal of Ecology 58(1): 2-13. doi: 10.1111/aje.12643
  • Kehoe, L., Reis, T., Virah-Sawmy, M., Balmford, A., Kuemmerle, T. & 604 signatories. 2019. Make EU trade with Brazil sustainable. Science 364(6438): 341. doi: 10.1126/science.aaw8276
  • Lamb, A., Finch, T., Pearce-Higgins, J., Ausden, M., Balmford, A., Feniuk, C., Hirons, G., Massimino, D. & Green, R.E. 2019. The consequences of land sparing for birds in the United Kingdom. Journal of Applied Ecology 56(8): 1870-1881. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.13362
  • Martin, P.A., Green, R.E. & Balmford, A. 2019. The Biodiversity Intactness Index may underestimate losses. Nature Ecology & Evolution 3: 862–863. doi: 10.1038/s41559-019-0895-1
  • Simmons, B.I., Balmford, A., Bladon, A.J., Christie, A.P., De Palma, A., Dicks, L.V., Gallego-Zamorana, J., Johnston, A., Martin, P.A.,Purvis, A., Rocha, R., Wauchope, H.S.,Wordley, C.F.R., Worthington, T.A., & Finch, T. 2019. Worldwide insect declines: an important message, but interpret with caution. Ecology and Evolution 9(7): 3678-3680. doi: 10.1002/ece3.5153
  • Strassburg, B., Beyer, H., Crouzeilles, R., Iribarrem, A., Barros, F., Ferreira de Siqueira, M., Sánchez Tapia, A., Balmford, A., Boelsums, J., Brancalion, P.H.S., Broadbent, E.N., Chazdon, R., Oliveira Filho, A., Gardner, T., Gordon, A., Latawiec, A., Loyola, R., Metzger, J.P., Mills, M., Possingham, H., Ribeiro Rodrigues, R., de Mattos Scaramuzza, C.A., Scarano, F.,  Tambosi, L. & Uriarte, M. 2019. Strategic approaches to restoring ecosystems can triple conservation gains and halve costs. Nature Ecology & Evolution 3: 62-70. doi: 10.1038/s41559-018-0743-8


  • Ashagre, B.B., Platts, P.J., Njana, M., Burgess, N.D., Balmford, A., Turner, K. & Schaafsma, M. 2018. Integrated modelling for economic valuation of the role of forests and woodlands in drinking water provision to two African cities. Ecosystem Services 32: 50–61.
  • Balmford, A., Amano, T., Bartlett, H., Chadwick, D., Collins, A., Edwards, D., Field, R., Garnsworthy, P., Green, R., Smith, P., Waters, H., Whitmore, A., Broom, D., Chara, J., Finch, T., Garnett, E., Gathorne-Hardy, A., Hernandez-Medrano, J., Herrero, M., Hua, F., Latawiec, A., Misselbrook, T., Phalan, B., Simmons, B., Takahashi, T., Vause, J., zu Ermgassen, E. & Eisner, R. 2018. The environmental costs and benefits of high-yield farming. Nature Sustainability 1: 477–485.
  • Balmford, A., Cole, L., Sandbrook, C.G. & Fisher, B. 2018. A response to O'Byrne et al. Biological Conservation 218: 295.
  • Beresford, A.E., Buchanon, G.M., Phalan, B., Eshiamwata, G.W., Balmford, A., Brink, A.B., Fishpool, L.D.C. & Donald, P.F. 2018. Correlates of long-term land-cover change and protected area performance at priority conservation sites in Africa. Environmental Conservation 45: 49–57. DOI:
  • Byerly, H., Balmford, A., Ferraro, P.J., Hammond Wagner, C., Palchak, E., Polasky, S., Ricketts, T.H., Schwartz, A.J. & Fisher, B. 2018. Nudging pro- environmental behavior: evidence and opportunities. Front. Ecol. Environ. 16(3): 159–168. DOI: 10.1002/fee.1777
  • Fernández-Llamazares, A., Helle, J., Eklund, J., Balmford, A., Moraes, M., Reyes-García, V. & Cabeza, M. 2018. New law puts Bolivian biodiversity hotspot on road to deforestation. Current Biology 28: R1–R16.
  • Geldmann, J., Coad, L., Barnes, M., Craigie, I.D., Woodley, S., Balmford, A., Brooks, T.M., Hockings, M., Knights, K., Mascia, M.B., McRae, L., Burgess, N.D. In press. A global analysis of management capacity and ecological outcomes in terrestrial protected areas. Conservation Letters 11: e12434. DOI: 10.1111/conl.12434
  • Green, J.M.H., Fisher, B., Green, R.E., Makero, J., Platts, P.J., Robert, N., Schaafsma, M., Turner, R.K. & Balmford, A. In press. Local costs of conservation exceed those borne by the global majority. Global Biology and Conservation. 14: e00385.
  • Williams, D.R., Phalan, B., Fenuik, C., Green, R.E. & Balmford, A. 2018. Carbon storage and land-use strategies in agricultural landscapes across three continents. Current Biology 28: 2500–2505

  • zu Ermgassen, E.K.H.J., de Alcântara, M.P., Balmford, A., Barioni, L., Neto, F.B., Bettarello, M.M.F., de Brito, G., Carrero, G.C., de A.S. Florence, E., Garcia, E., Trevisan Gonçalves, E., Trajano da Luz, C., Mallmann, G.M., Strassburg, B.B.N., Va lentim, J.F., Latawiec, A. 2018. Results from on-the-ground efforts to promote sustainable cattle ranching in the Brazilian Amazon. Sustainability 10: 1301.

  • zu Ermgassen, E.K.H.J., Kelly, M., Bladon, E., Salemdeeb, R. & Balmford, A. 2018. Support amongst UK pig farmers and agricultural stakeholders for the use of food losses in animal feed. PLoS One 13(4): e0196288. pone.0196288


  • Balmford, A., 2017. On positive shifting baselines and the importance of optimism. Oryx 51(2): 191-192. DOI: 10.1017/S0030605317000096
  • Balmford, A., Cole, L., Sandbrook, C.G. & Fisher, B. 2017. The environmental footprints of conservationists, economists and medics compared. Biological Conservation 214: 260–269.
  • Balmford, A. & R.E. Green. 2017. How to spare half a planet. Nature 552: 175.
  • Balmford, A. & Knowlton, N. 2017. Why Earth Optimism? Science 356(6335): 225. DOI: 10.1126/science.aan4082
  • Collas, L., Green, R.E., Ross, A., Wastell, J.H. & Balmford, A. 2017. Urban development, land sharing and land sparing: the importance of considering restoration. Journal of Applied Ecology 54(6): 1865–1873. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12908
  • Eisner, R., Waters, H.S., Green, R., Edwards, D., Field, R., Fenuik, C. & Balmford, A. Does higher-yielding agriculture mean more environmental harm? Aspects of Applied Biology 136: Sustainable Intensification 63–70.
  • Finch, T., Balmford, A., Green R. & Peach, W. 2017. England’s green and pleasant land: comparing land sparing and sharing in the UK. Aspects of Applied Biology 136: Sustainable Intensification 159–166.
  • Johnson, C.N., Balmford, A., Brook, B.W., Buettel, J.C., Galetti, M., Guangchun, L. & Wilmshurst, J.M. Biodiversity losses and conservation responses in the Anthropocene. Science 356(6335): 270–275. DOI: 10.1126/science.aam9317
  • Salemdeeb, R., zu Ermgassen, E.K.H.J., Kim, M.H., Balmford, A. & Al-Tabbaa, A. 2017. Environmental and health impacts of using food waste as animal feed: a comparative analysis of food waste management options. J. Cleaner Production 140(Part 2): 871–880.
  • Strassburg, B.B.N., Brooks, T., Feltran-Barbieri, R., Iribarrem, A., Crouzeilles, R. Loyola, R., Latawiec, A., Oliveira, F., de M. Scaramuzza, C.A., Scarano, F.R., Soares-Filho, B. & Balmford, A. 2017. Moment of truth for the Cerrado hotspot. Nature Ecology and Evolution Article number: 0099 doi:10.1038/s41559-017-0099
  • Tayleur, C., Balmford, A., Buchanan, G.M., Butchart, S.H.M., Corlet Walker, C., Ducharme, H., Green, R.E., Milder, J.C., Sanderson, F.J., Thomas, D.H.L., Tracewski, L., Vickery, J. & Phalan, B. 2017. Where are commodity crops certified, and what does it mean for conservation and poverty alleviation? Biological Conservation 217: 36–46.
  • Tayleur, C., Balmford, A., Buchanan, G.M., Butchart, S.H.M., Ducharme, H., Green, R.E., Milder, J.C., Sanderson, F.J., Thomas, D.H.L., Vickery, J. & Phalan, B. 2017. Global coverage of agricultural sustainability standards, and their role in conserving biodiversity. Conservation Letters 10: 610–618. DOI: 10.1111/conl.12314
  • Williams, D.R., Alvarado, F., Green, R.E., Manica, A., Phalan, B. & Balmford, A. 2017. Land-use strategies to balance livestock production, biodiversity conservation and carbon storage in Yucatán, Mexico. Global Change Biology 3(12): 5260–5272. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13791
  • Wolf, L.J., zu Ermgassen, S., Balmford, A., White, M. & Weinstein, N. 2017. Is variety the spice of life? An experimental investigation into the effects of species richness on self-reported mental well-being. PLoS One 12(1): e0170225DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0170225


  • Balmford, A., Chen, H., Phalan, B., Wang, M., O’Connell, C., Tayleur, C. & Xu, J. 2016. Getting road expansion on the right track: a framework for smart infrastructure planning in the Mekong. PLoS Biology 14(12): e2000266. DOI:10.1371/journal. pbio.2000266
  • Barnes, M.D., Craigie, I.D., Harrison, L.B., Geldmann, J., Collen, B., Sarah Whitmee, S., Balmford, A., Burgess, N.D., Brooks, T., Hockings, M. & Woodley, S. 2016. Wildlife population trends in protected areas predicted by national socio-economic metrics and body size. Nature Communications 7: 12747. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms12747
  • Bartlett, L.J., Williams, D.R., Prescott, G.W., Balmford, A., Green, R.E., Eriksson, A., Valdes, P.J., Singarayer, J.S. & Manica, A. 2016. Robustness despite uncertainty: regional climate data reveal the dominant role of humans in explaining global extinctions of Late Quaternary megafauna. Ecography 39: 152–161. DOI: 10.1111/ecog.01566 
  • Dotta, G., Phalan, B., Green, R.E., Silva, T.W. & Balmford, A. 2016. Assessing strategies to reconcile agriculture and bird conservation in the temperate grasslands of South America. Conservation Biology 30: 618–627. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12635
  • Joppa, L.N., O’Connor, B., Visconti, P., Smith, C., Geldmann, J., Hofmann, M., Watson, J.E.M., Butchart, S.H.M., Virah- Sawmy, M., Halpern, B.S., Ahmed, S.E., Balmford, A., Sutherland, W.J., Harfoot, M., Hilton-Taylor, C., Foden, W., Di Minin, E., Pagad, S., Genovesi, P., Hutton, J., Burgess, N.D. 2016. Filling in biodiversity threat gaps. Science 352: 416–418.
  • Lamb, A., Balmford, A., Green, R.E. & Phalan, B. 2016. To what extent could edge effects and habitat fragmentation diminish the potential benefits of land sparing? Biological Conservation 195: 264–271.
  • Lamb, A., Green, R., Bateman, I., Broadmeadow, M., Bruce, T., Burney, J., Carey, P., Chadwick, D., Crane, E., Field, R., Goulding, K., Griffiths, H., Hastings, A., Kasoar, T., Kindred, D., Phalan, B., Picketts, J., Smith, P., Wall, E., zu Ermgassen E.K.H.J. & Balmford, A. 2016. The potential for land sparing to offset greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. Nature Climate Change Letter 6: 488–492. DOI:10.1038/nclimate2910
  • Lees, A.C., Phalan, B. & Balmford, A. 2016. UK budget cuts erode Paris promises. Nature Correspondence 529: 25. DOI:10.1038/529025d
  • Naidoo, R., Fisher, B., Manica, A. & Balmford, A. 2016. Estimating economic losses to tourism in Africa from the illegal killing of elephants. Nature Communications 7: 13379. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13379
  • Peh, K.S.-H., Thapa, I., Basnyat, M., Balmford, A., Bhattarai, G.P., Bradbury, R.B., Brown, C., Butchart, S.H.M., Dhakal, M., Gurung, H., Hughes, F.M.R., Mulligan, M., Pandeya, B., Stattersfield, A.J., Thomas, D.H.L, Walpole, M. & Merriman, J.C. 2016. Synergies between biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service provision: Lessons from a Himalayan protected area in Nepal. Ecosystem Services 22(Part B): 359–369.
  • Phalan, B., Green, R.E., Dicks, L.V., Dotta, G., Feniuk, C., Lamb, A., Strassburg, B.B.N., Williams, D.R., zu Ermgassen, E.K.H.J. & Balmford, A. 2016. How can higher-yield farming help to spare nature? Science 351: 450–451.
  • Strassburg, B.B.N., Latawiec, A. & Balmford, A. 2016. Urgent action on Cerrado extinctions. Nature 540: 199.
  • Willcock, S., Phillips, O.L., Platts, P.J., Swetnam, R.D., Balmford, A., Burgess, N.D., Ahrends, A., Bayliss, J., Doggart, N., Doody, K., Fanning, E., Green, J.M.H., Hall, J., Howell, K.L., Lovett, J.C., Marchant, R., Marshall, A.R., Mbilinyi, B., Munishi, P.K.T., Owen, N., Topp-Jorgensen, E.J. & Lewis, S.L. 2016. Land cover change and carbon emissions over 100 years in an African biodiversity hotspot. Glob Change Biol 22: 2787–2800. DOI:10.1111/gcb.13218
  • zu Ermgassen, E.K.H.J., Balmford, A. & Salemdeeb, R. 2016. Reduce, re-legalize, and recycle food waste in Europe. Science 352: 1526.
  • zu Ermgassen, E.K.H.J., Phalan, B.T., Balmford, A.P. & Green, R.E. 2016. Reducing the land use of EU pork production: where there's swill, there's a way. Food Policy 58: 35–48.


  • Balmford, A., Green,  J.M.H., Anderson, M., Beresford, J., Huang, C., Naidoo, R., Walpole, M. & Manica, A. 2015. Walk on the wild side: estimating the global magnitude of visits to protected areas. PLoS Biology 13: e1002074. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002074
  • Balmford, A., Green, R. & Phalan, B. 2015. Land for food and land for nature? Daedalus 144(4): 57–75. DOI:10.1162/DAED_a_00354
  • Blaen, P.J., Jia, L., Peh, K.S.-H., Field, R.H., Balmford, A., MacDonald, M.A. & Bradbury, R.B. 2015. Rapid assessment of ecosystem services provided by two mineral extraction sites restored for nature conservation in an agricultural landscape in eastern England. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0121010. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121010
  • Butchart, S.H.M., Clarke, M., Smith, B., Sykes, R., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Harfoot, M., Buchanan, G.M., Angulo, R., Balmford, A., Bertzky, B., Brooks, T.M., Carpenter, K.E., Comeros, M., Cornell, J., Dulvy, N.K., Ficetola, G.F., Fishpool, L.D.C., Harwell, H., Hilton-Taylor, C., Hoffmann, M., Joolia, A., Joppa, L., Kingston, N., May, I., Milam, A., Polidoro, B., Ralph, G., Richman, N., Rondinini, C., Skolnik, B., Spalding, M., Stuart, S.N., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Visconti, P., Watson, J. & Burgess, N.D. 2015. Shortfalls and solutions for meeting national and global conservation area targets. Conservation Letters 8(5): 329–337. DOI: 10.1111/conl.12158 
  • Kamp, J., Urazaliev, R., Balmford, A., Donald, P., Green, R., Lamb, A. & Phalan, B. 2015. Agricultural development and the conservation of avian biodiversity on the Eurasian steppes: a comparison of land-sparing and land-sharing approaches. Journal of Applied Ecology 52: 1578–1587. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12527
  • Peh, K., Balmford, A., Birch, J., Brown, C., Butchart, S., Daley, J., Dawson, J., Gray, G., Hughes, F., Mendes, S., Millet, J., Stattersfield, A., Thomas, D., Walpole, M. & Bradbury, R. Potential impact of invasive alien species on ecosystem services provided by a tropical forested ecosystem: A case study from Montserrat. 2015. Biological Invasions 17(1): 461–475. DOI: 10.1007/s10530-014-0743-9
  • Weinstein, N., Balmford, A., DeHaan, C.R., Gladwell, V., Bradbury, R. & Amano, T. 2015. Seeing community for the trees: the links among contact with natural environments, community cohesion, and crime. BioScience 65: 1141–1153. DOI: 10.1093/biosci/biv151
  • Weinstein, N. Rogerson, M., Moreton, J., Balmford, A. & Bradbury, R. 2015. Conserving nature out of fear or knowledge? Using threatening versus connecting messages to generate support for environmental causes. Journal for Nature Conservation 26: 49–55DOI:10.1016/j.jnc.2015.04.002


  • Bayliss, J., Schaafsma, M., Balmford, A., Burgess, N.D., Green, J.M.H., Madoffe S.S., Okayasu, S., Peh, K.S.-H., Platts P.J., & Yu, D.W. 2014. The current and future value of nature-based tourism in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania. Ecosystem Services 8: 75–83. .
  • Birch, J.C., Thapa, I., Balmford, A., Bradbury, R.B., Brown, C., Butchart, S.H.M., Gurung, H., Hughes, F.M.R., Mulligan, M., Pandeya, B., Peh, K.S.-H., Stattersfield, A.J., Walpole, M. & Thomas, D.H.L. 2014. What benefits do community forests provide, and to whom? A rapid assessment of ecosystem services from a Himalayan forest, Nepal. Ecosystem Services 8: 118–127. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2014.03.005
  • Carranza, T., Balmford, A., Kapos V., Manica A. 2014. Protected area effectiveness in reducing conversion in a rapidly vanishing ecosystem: The Brazilian Cerrado. Conservation Letters 7(3): 216–223. doi:10.1111/conl.12049
  • Carranza, T., Manica, A., Kapos, V. & Balmford, A. 2014. Mismatches between conservation outcomes and the management evaluation of protected areas: A case study in the Brazilian Cerrado. Biological Conservation 173: 10–16. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2014.03.004
  • Fisher, B., Balmford, A., Ferraro, P.J., Glew, L., Mascia, M., Naidoo, R. & Ricketts, T.H. 2014. Moving forward and avoiding 10 more years with little evidence for effective conservation policy. Conservation Biology 28: 880–882. doi: 10.1111/cobi.12221
  • Hutchison, J., Manica, A., Swetnam, R., Balmford, A. & Spalding, M. 2014. Predicting global patterns in mangrove forest biomass. Conservation Letters 7(33): 233–240. DOI: 10.1111/conl.12060.
  • Laurance, W.F., Clements, G.R., Sloan, S., O’Connell, C., Mueller, N.D., Goosem, M., Venter, O., Edwards, D.P., Phalan, B., Balmford, A., van der Ree, R. & Burgues Arrea, I. 2014. A global strategy for road building. Nature 513:  229–233. doi:10.1038/nature13717
  • Mace, G., Balmford, A., Bates, P., Brown, K., Cox, P., Douglas, R., Godfray, C., Grimm, N., Head, P., Nicholls, R., Sokona, Y., Toulmin, C., Turner, K., Vira. B., Vlana, V., Watson, B., Gordon, B., Green, N., McBride, T., Tyldesley, S., Woods, E., Acton, J., Feniuk, C., Giles, S., Kemp, R. & Odell, S. 2014. Resilience to Extreme Weather. Royal Society, London.
  • Peh, K.S.-H., Balmford, A., Field, R.H., Lamb, S., Birch, J.C., Bradbury, R.B., Brown, C., Butchart, S.H.M., Lester, M., Morrison, R., Sedgewick, I., Soans, C., Stattersfield, A.J., Stroh, P.A., Swetnam, R., Thomas, D.H.L., Walpole, M., Warrington, S. & Hughes, F.M.R. 2014. Benefits and costs of ecological restoration: rapid assessment of changing ecosystem service values at a UK wetland. Ecology and Evolution 4(20): 3875–3886. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1248
  • Phalan, B., Green, R. & Balmford, A. 2014. Closing yield gaps: perils and possibilities for biodiversity conservation. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 369: 20120285. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2012.0285
  • Schaafsma, M., Morse-Jones, S., Posen, P., Swetnam, R.D., Balmford, A., Bateman, I.J., Burgess, N.D., Chamshama, S.A.O., Fisher, B., Freeman, T., Geofrey, V., Green, R.E., Hepelwa, A.S., Hernández-Sirvent, A., Hess, S., Kajembe, G.C., Kayharara, G., Kilonzo, M., Kulindwa, K., Lund, J.F., Madoffe, S.S., Mbwambo, L., Meilby, H., Ngaga, Y.M., Theilade, I., Treue, T., Beukering, P. van, Vyamana, V.G. & Turner, R.K. 2014. The importance of local forest benefits: Economic valuation of non-timber forest products in the Eastern Arc Mountains in Tanzania. Global. Env. Change 24: 295–305.
  • Willcock, S., Phillips, O.L., Platts, P.J., Balmford, A., Burgess, N.D., Lovett, J.C., Ahrends, A., Bayliss, J., Doggart, N., Doody, K., Fanning, E., Green, J.M.H., Hall, J., Howell, K.L., Marchant, R., Marshall, A.R., Mbilinyi, B., Munishi, P.K.T., Owen, N., Swetnam, R.D., Topp-Jorgensen, E. & Lewis, S.L. 2014. Quantifying and understanding carbon storage and sequestration within the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania, a tropical biodiversity hotspot. Carbon Balance and Management 9: 2. doi:10.1186/1750-0680-9-2
  • zu Ermgassen, E.K.H.J., Williams, D.R. & Balmford, A. 2014. Livestock: tackle demand and yields. Nature 508: 186. doi:10.1038/508186b


  • Balmford, A. 2013. Pollution, Politics, and Vultures. Science 339: 653–654.
  • Beresford, A., Eshiamwata, G., Donald, P., BalmfordA., Bertzky, B., Brink, A., Fishpool, L., Mayaux, P., Phalan, B., Simonetti, D. &  Buchanan, G.M. 2013. Protection reduces loss of natural land-cover at sites of conservation importance across Africa. PLoS ONE 8(5): e65370. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065370.
  • Butchart, S.H.M., McCarthy, D.P., BalmfordA., Bennun, L.A., Buchanan, G.M., Burgess, N.D., Donald, P.F., Fishpool, L.D.C, Garnett, S.T., Leonard, D.L., Maloney, R.F., Schaefer, H.M., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Symes, A. & Weidenfeld, D.A. 2013. Sharing future conservation costs. Response. Science 339: 271–272.
  • Coad, L., Schleicher, J., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Marthews, T., Starkey, M., Manica, A., BalmfordA., Mbombe, W., Ndop, T. & Abernethy, K. 2013. Social and ecological change over a decade in a village hunting system, central Gabon. Conservation Biology 27: 270–280.
  • Garnett, T., Appleby, M.C., Balmford, A., Bateman, I.J., Benton, T.G., Bloomer, P., Burlingame, B., Dawkins, M., Dolan, L., Fraser, D., Herrero, M., Hoffmann, I., Smith, P., Thornton, P.K., Toulmin, C., Vermuelen, S.J. & Godfray, H.C.J. 2013. Sustainable intensification in agriculture: premises and policies. Science 341: 33–34.
  • Green, J.M.H., Larrosa, C., Burgess, N.D., Balmford, A., Johnston, A., Mbilinyi, B.P., Platts, P.J. & Coad, L. 2013. Deforestation in an African biodiversity hotspot: extent, variation, and the effectiveness of protected areas. Biological Conservation 164: 62–72. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2013.04.016
  • Laurance, W.F. & Balmford, A. 2013. Land use: A global map for road building. Nature 495: 308–309.
  • Lees, A.C., Newton, I. & Balmford, A. 2013. Pheasants, buzzards and trophic cascades. Conservation Letters 6: 141–144. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2012.00301.x
  • Peh, K.S.-H., Balmford, A., Bradbury, R.B., Brown, C., Butchart, S.H.M., Hughes, F.M.R., Stattersfield, A., Thomas, D.H.L., Walpole, M., Bayliss, J., Gowing, D., Jones, J.P.G., Lewis, S.L., Mulligan, M., Pandeya, B., Stratford, C., Thompson, J.R., Turner, K., Vira, B., Willcock, S. & Birch, J.C. 2013. TESSA: a toolkit for rapid assessment of ecosystem services at sites of biodiversity conservation importance. Ecosystem Services 5: 51–57.
  • Peh, K.S.-H., Balmford, A.P., Bradbury, R.B., Brown, C., Butchart, S.H.M., Hughes, F.M.R., Stattersfield, A.J., Thomas, D.H.L., Walpole, M. & Birch, J.C. 2013. Toolkit for Ecosystem Service Site-based Assessments (TESSA). Cambridge Conservation Initiative. Cambridge, UK.
  • Phalan, B., Bertzky, M., Butchart, S.H.M., Donald, P.F., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Stattersfield, A.J. & Balmford, A. 2013. Crop expansion and conservation priorities in tropical countries. PLoS ONE 8(1): e51759. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051759.


  • Balmford, A. 2012. Wild Hope: On the Front Lines of Conservation Success. University of Chicago Press. pp. 264.
  • Balmford, A., Green, R. & Phalan, B. 2012. What conservationists need to know about farming. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 279: 2714–2724. doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.0515.
  • Bogich, T.L., Barker, G.M., Mahlfeld, K., Climo, F., Green, R. & Balmford, A. 2012. Fragmentation, grazing and the species-area relationship. Ecography 35: 224–231.
  • Green, J.H.M., Burgess, N.D., Green, R.E., Madoffe, S.S., Munishi, P.K.T., Nashanda, E., Turner, R.K. & Balmford, A. 2012. Estimating management costs of protected areas: a novel approach from the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania. Biol. Conserv. 150: 5–14.
  • Larsen, F.W., Bladt, J., Balmford, A. & Rahbek, C. 2012. Birds as biodiversity surrogates: will supplementing birds with other taxa improve effectiveness? J. appl. Ecol. 49: 349–356.
  • Marshall, A.R., Willcock, S., Platts, P.J., Lovett, J.C., Balmford, A., Burgess, N.D., Latham, J.E., Munishi, P.K., Salter, R., Shirima, D.D. & Lewis, S.L. 2012. Measuring and modelling above-ground live carbon storage and tree allometry along an elevation gradient. Biol. Conserv. 154: 20–33.
  • McCarthy, D.P., Donald, P.F., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Buchanan, G.M., BalmfordA., Green, J.H.M., Bennun, L.A., Burgess, N.D., Fishpool, L.D.C., Garnett, S.T., Leonard, D.L., Maloney, R.F., Morling, P., Schaefer, H.M., Symes, A., Weidenfeld, D.A. & Butchart, S.H.M. 2012. Financial costs of meeting two global biodiversity conservation targets: current spending and unmet needs. Science 338: 946–949.
  • Phalan, B., Balmford, A. & Green, R.E. 2012. Agriculture as a key element for conservation: reasons for caution. Conservation Letters 5(4): 323–324. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2012.00248.x
  • Prescott, G.W., Williams, D.R., Balmford, A., Green R.E. & Manica, A. (2012) Quantitative global analysis of the role of climate and people in explaining late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109(12): 4527–4531. DOI: 10.1073/pnas. 1113875109
  • Prescott, G.W., Williams, D.R., Balmford, A., Green, R.E. & Manica, A. 2012. Reply to Lima-Ribeiro et al: human arrival scenarios have little influence on interpretations of late Quaternary extinctions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109(37): E2411–E2412. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1208586109
  • Schaafsma, M., Morse-Jones, S., Posen, P., Swetnam, R.D., Balmford, A., Bateman, I., Burgess, N., Chamshama, S.A.O., Fisher, B., Green, R., Hepelwa, A.S., Hernández-Sirvent, A., Kajembe, G.C., Kulindwa, K., Lund, J.F., Mbwambo, L., Meilby, H., Ngaga, Y.M., Theilade, I., Treue, T., Vyamana, V.G. & Turner, R.K. 2012. Towards transferable functions for extraction of non timber forest products with a case study on charcoal production in Tanzania. Ecol. Econ. 80: 48–62. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.04.026
  • Strassburg, B.B.N., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Gusti, M., Balmford, A., Fritz, S., Obersteimer, M., Turner, R.K. & Brooks, T.M. 2012. Impacts of incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation on global species extinctions. Nature Climate Change 2: 350–355. doi:10.1038/nclimate1375
  • Willcock, S., Phillips, O.L., Platts, P.J., Balmford, A., Burgess, N.D., Lovett, J.C., Ahrends, A., Bayliss, J., Doggart, N., Doody, K., Fanning, E., Green, J., Hall, J., Howell, K.L., Marchant, R., Marshall, A.R., Mbilinyi, B., Munishi, P.K.T., Owen, N., Swetnam, R.D., Topp-Jorgensen, E.J. & Lewis, S.L. 2012. Towards regional, error-bounded landscape carbon storage estimates for data-deficient areas of the world. PLoS ONE 7(9):e44795 2012 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044795


  • Balmford, A., Birch, J., Bradbury, R., Brown, C., Butchart, S., Hughes, F., Peh, K., Stattersfield, A., Thomas, D. & Walpole, M. 2011. Measuring and monitoring ecosystem services at the site scale. Cambridge Conservation Initiative and BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.
  • Balmford, A., Fisher, B., Green, R.E., Naidoo, R., Strassburg, B. & Turner, R.K. & Rodrigues, A.S.L. 2011. Bringing ecosystem services into the real world: An operational framework for assessing the economic consequences of losing wild nature. Environmental and Resource Economics 48: 161–175. DOI: 10.1007/s10640-010-9413-2
  • Balmford, A., Kroshko, J., Leader-Williams, N. & Mason, G. 2011.  Zoos and captive breeding. Science 332: 1149–1150.
  • Fisher, B., Lewis, S.L., Burgess, N.D., Malimbwi, R.E., Munishi, P.K., Swetnam, R.D., Turner, R.K., Willcock, S. & Balmford, A. 2011. Implementation and opportunity costs of reducing deforestation and forest degradation in Tanzania. Nature Climate Change 1: 161–164.
  • Fisher, B., Turner, R.K., Burgess, N.D., Swetnam, R.D., Green, J., Green, R., Kajembe, G., Kulindwa, K., Lewis, S., Marchant, R., Marshall, A.R., Madoffe, S., Munishi, P.K.T., Morse-Jones, S., Mwakalila, S., Paavola, J., Naidoo, R., Ricketts, T., Rouget, M., Willcock, S., White, S. & Balmford, A. 2011.  Measuring, modeling and mapping ecosystem services in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania. Progress in Physical Geography 35: 595–611.
  • Mace, G.M., Bateman, I., Albon, S., Balmford, A., Brown, C., Church, A., Haines-Young, R., Pretty, J.N., Turner, R.K., Vira, B. & Winn, J. 2011. Conceptual framework and methodology. In: UK National Ecosystem Assessment: Understanding Nature’s Value to Society. Technical Report. UK National Ecosystem Assessment, UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge. pp. 11–25.
  • McCrea-Strub, A., Zeller, D., Sumaila, U.R., Nelson, J., Balmford, A. & Pauly, D. 2011. Understanding the cost of establishing marine protected areas. Marine Policy 35: 1–9.
  • Phalan, B., Balmford, A., Green, R.E. & Scharlemann, J. 2011.  Minimising the harm to biodiversity of producing more food globally. Food Policy 36: S62–S71.
  • Phalan, B., Onial, M., Balmford, A. & Green, R.E. 2011. Conservation: limits of land-sparing. Response. Science 334: 594–595.
  • Phalan, B., Onial, M., Balmford, A. & Green, R.E. 2011  Reconciling food production and biodiversity conservation: land sharing and land sparing compared. Science 333: 1289–1291.
  • Shirima, D., Munishi, P., Lewis, S., Burgess, N., Marshall, A., Balmford, A., Swetnam, R. & Zahabu, E.  2011.  Carbon storage, structure and composition of miombo woodlands in Tanzania’s Eastern Arc mountains. Afr. J. Ecol. 49: 332–342.
  • Sparks, T.H., Butchart, S.H.M., Balmford, A., Bennun, L., Stanwell-Smith, D., Walpole, M., Bates, N., Bomhard, B., Buchanan, G.M., Chenery, A.M., Collen, B., Csirke, J., Diaz, R.J., Dulvy, K., Fitzgerald, C., Kapos, V., Mayaux, P., Tierney, M., Waycott, M., Wood, L. & Green, R.E. 2011.  Linked indicator sets for addressing biodiversity loss. Oryx 45: 411–419.         
  • Swetnam, R.D., Fisher, B., Mbilinyi, B.P., Munishi, P.K., Willcock, S., Ricketts, T., Mwakalila, S., Balmford, A., Burgess, N.D., Marshall, A.R. & Lewis, S.L. 2011. Mapping socio-economic scenarios of land cover change: a GIS method to enable ecosystem service modelling. J. Env. Manage. 92: 563–574.


  • Coad, L., Abernethy, K., Balmford, A., Manica, A., Airey, L. & Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2010. Bushmeat, wealth and gender: the distribution and use of bushmeat incomes in a rural village, Central Gabon. Conserv. Biol. 24(6): 1510–1518.
  • Craigie, I., Baillie, J., Balmford, A., Carbone, C., Collen, B., Green, R. & Hutton, J.M. 2010. Large mammal population declines in Africa’s protected areas. Biol. Conserv. 143: 2221–2228.
  • Kapos, V., Manica, A., Aveling, R., Bubb, P., Carey, P., Entwistle, A., Hopkins, J., Mulliken, T., Safford, R., Stattersfield, A., Walpole, M. & Balmford, A. 2010. Defining and measuring success in conservation. In: Leader-Williams, N. & Smith, R.J. (Eds.) Trade-offs in Conservation. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK. pp.73–93.
  • Leadley, P., Pereira, H.M., Alkemade, R., Fernandez-Manjarrés, J.F., Proença, V., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Walpole, M.J., Agard, J., Araújo, M., Balmford, A., Balvanera, P., Biggs, O., Bopp, L., Burgiel, S., Cheung, W., Ciais, P., Cooper, D., Ellison, J.C., Figueiredo, J., Gilma, E., Guénette, S., Hoft, R., Hugueny, B., Hurtt, G., Huntington, H.P., Leprieur, F., Le Queré, C., Mace, G., Mbow, C., Mooney, K., Neuville, A., Nobre, C., Oberdorff, T., Revenga, C., Robertson, J.C., Rodrigues, P., Rocha, J.C., Sato, G.H.,Scholes, B., Smith, M.S., Sumaila, U.R. & Tedesco, P.A. 2010. Biodiversity Scenarios: Projections of 21st Century Change in Biodiversity and Associated Ecosystem Services. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal. Technical Series No. 50. pp. 132.
  • Lobo, A., Balmford, A., Rohan, A. & Manica, A. 2010. Commercializing bycatch can push a fishery beyond economic extinction. Conserv. Lett. 3: 277–285. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2009.00092.x
  • Naidoo, R., Balmford, A. & Manica, A. 2010. Re. Comment on Balmford et al. 2009. A global perspective on trends in nature-based tourism. PLoS Biology comments.
  • Strassburg, B.B.N., Kelly, A., Balmford, A., Davies, R.G., Gibbs, H.K., Lovett, A., Miles, L., Orme, C.D.L., Price, J., Turner, R.K. & Rodrigues, A.S.L. 2010. Global congruence of carbon storage and biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems. Conserv. Lett. 3: 98–105. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2009.00092.x
  • Wielgus, J., Balmford, A., Lewis, T., Mora, C. & Gerber, L. 2010. Coral reef quality and recreation fees in Marine Protected Areas. Conserv. Lett. 3: 38–44.


  • Balmford, A. 2009. Foreword. In: Cowling, R. & Pierce, S. (Eds.) East of the Cape. Conserving Eden. Fernwood Press, Simon’s Town. p.6.
  • Balmford, A. 2009. Written evidence submitted to the UK Parliamentary Inquiry into the Global Food Crisis.
  • Balmford, A. 2009. Saving Ely’s wildspace. Cambridgeshire Bird Club Bulletin 405: 5–6.
  • Balmford, A., Beresford, J., Green, J., Naidoo, R., Walpole, M. & Manica, A. 2009. A global perspective on trends in nature tourism. PLoS Biology 7: e1000144.
  • Balmford, A., Carey, P., Kapos, V., Manica, A., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Scharlemann, J.P.W. & Green, R.E. 2009. Capturing the many dimensions of threat – Comment on Salafsky et al. Conserv. Biol. 23: 482–487.
  • Burgess, N., Mwakalila, S., Madoffe, S., Ricketts, T.H., Olwero, N., Swetnam, R., Mbilinyi, B.,Marchant, R., Mtalo, F., White, S., Munishi, P., Marshall, A., Malimbwi, R., Jambiya, G., Fisher, B., Kajembe, G., Morse-Jones, S., Kulindwa, K., Green, J. & Balmford, A. 2009. Valuing the Arc – a programme to map and value ecosystem services in Tanzania. Mountain Research Initiative Newsletter 18(3): 18–21.
  • Danielsen, F., Burgess, N.D., Balmford, A., Donald, P.F., Funder, M., Jones, J.P.G., Alviola, P., Balete, D.S., Blomley, T., Brashares, J., Child, B., Enghoff, M., Fjeldså, J., Holt, S., Hübertz, H., Jensen, A., Jensen, P.M., Massao, J., Mendoza, M.M., Ngaga, Y., Poulsen, M.K., Rueda, R., Sam, M., Skielboe, T., Stuart-Hill, G., Topp-Jørgensen, E. & Yonten, D. 2009. Local participation in natural resource monitoring: a characterization of approaches. Conserv. Biol. 23: 31–42.
  • Ewers, R.M., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Balmford, A. & Green, R.E. 2009. Do increases in agricultural yield spare land for nature? Global Change Biology 15: 1716–1726.
  • Fisher, B., Balmford, A., Green, R. & Trevelyan, R. 2009. Conservation science training: the need for an extra dimension. Oryx 43: 361–363.
  • Kapos, V., Balmford, A., Aveling, R., Bubb, P., Carey, P., Entwistle, A., Hopkins, J., Mulliken, T., Safford, R., Stattersfield, A., Walpole, M., & Manica, A. 2009 Outcomes, not implementation, predict conservation success. Oryx 43: 336–342.
  • Mwakalila, S., Burgess, N., Ricketts, T., Olwero, N., Swetnam, R., Mbilinyi, B., Marchant, R., Mtalo, F., White, S., Munishi, P., Marshall, A., Malimbwi, R., Smith, C., Jambiya, G., Madoffe, S., Fisher, B., Kajembe, G., Morse-Jones, S., Kulindwa, K., Green, J. & Balmford, A. 2009. Valuing the Arc: Linking science with stakeholders to sustain natural capital. The Arc Journal 23: 25–30.
  • Rands, M., Adams, B., Balmford, A. & Sutherland, B. 2009. Cambridge Conservation Initiative: transforming international Biodiversity conservation. Research Horizons 9: 24–25.
  • Rodrigues, A.S.L., Ewers, R.M., Parry, L., Souza Jr., C., Vérissimo, A. & Balmford, A. 2009. Boom-and-bust development patterns across the Amazon deforestation frontier. Science 324: 1435–1437.
  • Thompson, M., Vlok, J., Rouget, M., Hoffman, M.T., Balmford, A. & Cowling, R.M. 2009. Mapping grazing-induced degradation in a semi-arid environment: a rapid and cost effective approach for assessment and monitoring. Environmental Management 43: 585–596.


  • Ang, T.Z., O'Luanaigh, C., Rands, S.A., Balmford, A. & Manica, A. 2008. Quantifying the costs and benefits of protective egg coating in a Chrysomelid beetle. Ecol. Entomol33: 484–487.
  • Balmford, A., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Walpole. M., ten Brink, P., Kettunen, M., Braat, L. & de Groot, R. 2008. The Economics of Biodiversity and Ecosystems: Scoping the Science. Cambridge, UK: European Commission (contract: ENV/070307/2007/486089/ETU/B2). Open Access
  • Bruner, A., Naidoo, R. & Balmford, A. 2008. Review of the Costs of Conservation and Priorities for Action Cambridge, UK: European Commission (contract: ENV/070307/2007/486089/ETU/B2). Open Access
  • Fisher, B., Turner, K., Brouwer, R., Costanza, R., de Groot, R., Farber, S., Ferraro, P., Green, R., Hadley, D., Harlow, J., Jefferiss, P., Kirkby, C., Morling, P., Mowatt, S., Naidoo, R., Paavola, J., Strassburg, B., Yu, D., Zylstra, M. & Balmford, A. 2008. Ecosystem services and economic theory: Integration for policy-relevant research. Ecological Applications 18: 2050–2067.
  • Kapos, V., Balmford, A., Aveling, R., Bubb, P., Carey, P., Entwistle, A., Hopkins, J., Mulliken, T., Safford, R., Stattersfield, A., Walpole, M. & Manica, A. 2008. Calibrating conservation: new tools for measuring success. Conservation Letters 1: 155–164.
  • Knight, A.T., Cowling, R.M., Rouget, M., Balmford, A., Lombard, A.T. & Campbell, B.M. 2008. ‘Knowing’ but not ‘doing’: Selecting priority conservation areas and the research-implementation gap. Conserv. Biol. 22: 610–617.
  • Naidoo, R., Balmford, A., Costanza, R., Fisher, B., Green, R.E., Lehner, B., Malcolm, T.R. and Ricketts, T.H. 2008. Global mapping of ecosystem services and conservation priorities. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105: 9495–9500.


  • Amis, M.A., Rouget, M., Balmford, A., Thuiller, W., Kleynhans, C.J., Day, J. & Nel, J. 2007. An assessment of the ecological integrity of freshwater ecosystems using land use surrogates. Water SA 33: 215–221.
  • Balmford, A., Leader-Williams, N., Mace, G., Manica, A., Walter, O., West, C. & Zimmermann, A. 2007. Message received? Quantifying the impact of informal conservation education on adults visiting UK zoos. In: Zimmermann, A., Hatchwell, M. Dickie, L. & West, C. (Eds.) Zoos in the 21st Century: Catalysts for Conservation? Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK. pp. 120–136.
  • Burgess, N.D., Balmford, A., Cordeiro, N.J., Fjeldså, J., Küper, W., Rahbek, C., Sanderson, E.W., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Sommer, H. & Williams, P.H. 2007. Correlations among species distributions, human density and human infrastructure across high biodiversity tropical mountains of Africa. Biol Cons 134: 164–177.
  • Forest, F., Grenyer, R., Rouget, M., Davies, T.J., Cowling, R.M., Faith, D.P., Balmford, A., Manning, J.C., Proches, S., van der Brink, M., Reeves, G., Hedderson, T.A.J., Savolainen, V. 2007. Preserving the evolutionary potential of floras in biodiversity hotspots. Nature 445: 757–760.
  • Leader-Williams, N., Balmford, A., Linkie, M., Mace, G.M., Smith, R.J., Stevenson, M., Walter, O., West, C.D. & Zimmerman, A. 2007. Beyond the ark: conservation biologists’ views of the achievements of zoos in conservation. In: Zimmermann, A., Hatchwell, M. Dickie, L. & West, C. (Eds.) Zoos in the 21st Century: Catalysts for Conservation? Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK. pp. 236–254.
  • Mace, G., Balmford, A., Leader-Williams, N., Manica, A., Walter, O., West, C. & Zimmermann, A. 2007. Measuring conservation success: assessing zoos’ contribution. In: Zimmermann, A., Hatchwell, M. Dickie, L. & West, C. (Eds.) Zoos in the 21st Century: Catalysts for Conservation? Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK. pp. 322–342.
  • Naidoo, R., Balmford, A., Ferraro, P., Polasky, S., Ricketts, T. & Rouget, M. 2007. Response to Hockley: The merit of economic and biological measures in conservation planning. Trends Ecol Evol 22: 287–288.
  • Phalan, B., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Balmford, A., Green, R.E. & Ewers, R.M. 2007. Comment on "Resource-conserving agriculture increases yields in developing countries". Environ Sci Technol 41: 1054–1055. Author reply 1056–1057.
  • Scales, H., Balmford, A. & Manica, A. 2007. Impacts of the live reef fish trade on populations of coral reef fish off Northern Borneo. Proc R Soc Lond [Biol]. 274: 989–994.
  • Scales, H., Balmford, A. & Manica, A. 2007. Monitoring the live reef fish trade: lessons learned from global perspectives. SPC Live Reef Fish Information Bulletin 17: 36–42.
  • Smith, R.J., Muir, R.D.J., Walpole, M.J., Balmford, A. & Leader-Williams, N. 2007. Revisiting the links between governance and biodiversity loss. Conserv. Biol. 21: 899–900.


  • Balmford, B., Balmford, J., Balmford, A., Blakeman, S., Manica, A. & Cowling, R.M. 2006. Diurnal versus nocturnal pollination of Brunsvigia gregaria R.A. Dyer (Amaryllidaceae) at a coastal site. S. Afr. J. Botany 72: 291–294.
  • Balmford, A. & Cowling, R.M. 2006. Fusion or failure? The future of conservation biology. Conserv. Biol. 20: 692–695.
  • Danielsen, N., Burgess, N.D., Balmford, A., Donald, P.F., Funder, M., Jones, J.P.G., Fjeldså, J., Andrianandrasana, H.T., Becker, C.D., Bennun, L., Brashares, J.S., Christiansen, S., Eguino, S., Enghoff, M., Gray, M., Hübertz, H., Oetting, I., Poulsen, M.K., van Rijsoort, J., Stuart-Hill, G., Topp-Jørgensen, E., Townsend, W.R., Uychiaoco, A.J., Whitten, T. & Yonten, D. 2006. Monitoring matters: evaluating locally-based biodiversity monitoring in developing countries. Oryx 40: 14–15.
  • Naidoo, R., Balmford, A., Ferraro, P., Polasky, S., Ricketts, T. & Rouget, M. 2006. Integrating economic costs into conservation planning. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21: 681–687.
  • Rouget, M., Cowling, R.M., Vlok, J., Thompson, M. & Balmford, A. 2006. Getting the Biodiversity Intactness Index right: the importance of data quality. Global Change Biology 12: 2032–2036.
  • Scales, H., Balmford, A., Sadovy, Y. & Manica, A. 2006. Keeping bandits at bay? Science 313: 612–613.
  • Tushabe, H., Kalema, J., Byaruhanga, A., Asasira, J., Ssegawa, P., Balmford, A., Davenport, T., Fjeldså, J., Friis, I., Pain, D., Pomeroy, D., William, P. & Williams, C. 2006. How important are Important Bird Areas? A nationwide assessment of the biodiversity value of Uganda’s IBA network. Conserv. Biol. 20: 85–99.
  • Whitten, T. & Balmford, A. 2006. Who should pay for tropical forest conservation, and how could the costs be met? In Peres, C. & Laurance, W. (Eds.) Emerging Threats to Tropical Forests. University of Chicago Press: Chicago. pp. 317–336.


  • Balmford, A., Bennun, L., ten Brink, B., Cooper, D., Cote, I.M., Crane, P., Dobson, A., Dudley, N., Dutton, I., Green, R.E., Gregory, R., Harrison, J., Kennedy, E.T., Kremen, C., Leader-Williams, N., Lovejoy, T., Mace, G., May, R., Mayaux, P., Phillips, J., Redford, K., Ricketts, T.H., Rodriguez, J.P., Sanjayan, M., Schei, P., van Jaarsveld, A. & Walther, B.A. 2005. Science and the Convention on Biological Diversity’s 2010 target. Science 307: 212–213.
  • Balmford, A. & Bond, W. 2005. Trends in the state of nature and implications for human well-being. Ecology Letters 8: 1218–1234.
  • Balmford, A., Crane, P., Dobson, A.P., Green, R.E. & Mace, G.M. 2005. The 2010 challenge: data availability, information needs, and extraterrestrial insights. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 360: 221–228.
  • Balmford, A., Green, R. & Scharlemann, J.P.W. 2005. Sparing land for nature: exploring the potential impact of changes in agricultural yield on the area needed for crop production. Global Change Biology 11: 1594–1605.
  • Danielsen, F., Burgess, N.D. & Balmford, A. 2005. Monitoring matters: examining the potential of locally-based approaches. Biodiv. Conserv. 14: 2507–2542.
  • Pain, D., Fishpool, L., Byaruhanga, A., Arinaitwe, J. & Balmford, A. 2005. Biodiversity representation in Uganda's forest IBAs. Biol. Conserv. 125: 133–138.
  • Dobson, A.P., Balmford, A., Crane, P.R., Green, R.E. & Mace, G.M. 2005. Establishing indicators for biodiversity. Response. Science 308: 792.
  • Green, R.E., Balmford, A., Crane, P.R., Mace, G.M., Reynolds, J.D. & Turner, R.K. 2005. A framework for improved monitoring of biodiversity: Responses to the World Summit on Sustainable Development. Conserv. Biol. 19: 56–65.
  • Green, R.E., Cornell, S., Scharlemann, J.P.W. & Balmford, A. 2005. Farming and the fate of wild nature. Science 307: 550–555.
  • Green, R.E., Cornell, S.J., Scharlemann, J.P.W. & Balmford, A. 2005. The future of farming and conservation. Response. Science 308: 1257–1258.
  • Jones, J.P.G., Andriahajaina, F.B., Hockley, N.J., Balmford, A. & Ravoahangimalala, O.R. 2005. Freshwater crayfish harvesting in Madagascar: a multidisciplinary approach to assessing sustainability. Conserv. Biol. 19: 1863–1871.
  • Levy, M., Babu, S., Hamilton, K., Rhoe, V., Catenazzi, A., Chen, M., Reid, W.V., Sengupta, D., Ximing, C., Balmford, A.,  Bond, W. 2005. Ecosystem conditions and human well-being. In: Hassan, R., Scholes, R. & Ash, N. (Eds.) Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Current State and Trends, Volume 1.  Island Press: Washington DC. pp. 123–142 .
  • Mace, G., Masundire, H., Baillie, J., Ricketts, T., Brooks, T., Hoffmann, M., Stuart, S., Balmford, A., Purvis, A., Reyers, B., Wang, J., Revenga, C., Kennedy, E., Naeem, S., Alkemade, R., Allnutt, T., Bakarr, M., Bond, W., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Fonseca, G., Hilton-Taylor, C., Loucks, C., Rodrigues, A., Sechrest, W., Stattersfield, A., van Rensburg, B.J., Whiteman, C., Abell, R., Ceballos, G., Cokeliss, Z., Lamoreux, J., Pereira, H.M., Th?nell, J., Williams, P. & Veron, C. 2005. Biodiversity. In: Hassan, R., Scholes, R. & Ash, N. (Eds.) Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Current State and Trends, Volume 1.  Island Press: Washington DC. pp. 77–122.
  • Scharlemann, J.P.W., Balmford, A. & Green, R.E. 2005. The level of threat to restricted-range bird species can be predicted from mapped data on land use and human population density. Biol. Conserv. 123: 317–326.


  • Balmford, A., Gravestock, P., Hockley, N., McClean, C.J. & Roberts, C.M. 2004. The worldwide costs of marine conservation. PNAS 101: 9694–9697.
  • Balmford, A., Manica, A., Airey, L., Birkin, L., Oliver, A. & Schleicher, J. 2004. Climate change, Hollywood and public opinion. Science 305: 1713.
  • Brashares, J.S., Arcese, P., Sam, M.K., Coppolillo, P.B., Sinclair, A.R.E. & Balmford, A. 2004. Bushmeat hunting, wildlife declines, and fish supply in West Africa. Science 306: 1180–1183.
  • Bruner, A.G., Gullison, R.E. & Balmford, A. 2004. Financial needs for comprehensive, functional protected area systems in developing countries. BioScience 54: 1119–1126.
  • Burgess, N., Ricketts, T., Balmford, A. & Wild, R. 2004. The 5th World Parks Congress, Durban. Oryx 38: 1–2.
  • Green, R.E., Balmford, A. & Jenkins, M. 2004. Response to Waller and Rooney: nature is changing in more ways than one. Trends Ecol. Evol. 19: 7.
  • Madden, J. R. & Balmford, A. 2004. Spotted bowerbirds do not prefer rare or costly bower decorations. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 55: 589–595.
  • Moore, J., Balmford, A., Allnutt, T. & Burgess, N. 2004. Integrating costs into conservation planning across Africa. Biol. Conserv. 117: 343–350.
  • Moore, J., Balmford, A., Allnutt, T. & Burgess, N. 2004. Factoring costs into conservation planning. In: Burgess, N., D’Amico Hales, J., Underwood, E., Dinerstein, E., Olson, D., Itoua, I., Schipper, J., Ricketts, T. & Newman, K. (Eds.)Terrestrial ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar. Island Press, Washington. pp. 121–124.
  • Scharlemann, J.P.W., Green, R.E., & Balmford, A. 2004. Land-use trends in Endemic Bird Areas: global expansion of agriculture in areas of high conservation value. Global Change Biology 10: 1–6.
  • Scharlemann, J.P.W., Green, R.E., & Balmford, A. 2004. Agricultural land has expanded six-fold since 1700 and Endemic Bird Areas have suffered disproportionately. In: BirdLife International (Ed.) State of the World's Birds 2004: Indicators for Our Changing World. BirdLife International: Cambridge, UK. p. 32.
  • Scharlemann, J.P.W., Green, R.E., & Balmford, A. 2004. Agricultural expansion is a major threat to birds, and appears to be increasing in importance. In: BirdLife International (Ed.) State of the World's Birds 2004: Indicators for Our Changing World. pp. 32. BirdLife International: Cambridge, UK. p. 33.
  • Scharlemann, J.P.W., Green, R.E., & Balmford, A. 2004. More species are threatened in the developing world than in the developed world. In: BirdLife International (Ed.) State of the World's Birds 2004: Indicators for Our Changing World. BirdLife International: Cambridge, UK. p. 50.
  • Scharlemann, J.P.W., Green, R.E., & Balmford, A. 2004. Security or sustainability first? The fate of Endemic Bird Areas depends on the choices we make. In: BirdLife International (Ed.) State of the World's Birds 2004: Indicators for Our Changing World. BirdLife International: Cambridge, UK. pp. 72–73.
  • Shambaugh, J., Jackson, N., Gylee, R., Oglethorpe, J., Kormos, R., BalmfordA., D’Amico Hales, J., Kanyamibwa, S.,  Burgess, N., Garnett, T. & Doka Morjan, M. 2004. Armed conflict and the African environment. In: Burgess, N., D’Amico Hales, J., Underwood, E., Dinerstein, E., Olson, D., Itoua, I., Schipper, J., Ricketts, T. & Newman, K. (Eds.) Terrestrial Ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar. Island Press: Washington. pp. 125–128.


  • Balmford, A. 2003. Determining priorities (interview). First Conservation Issue: 58–59.
  • Balmford, A. 2003. Conservation planning in the real world: South Africa shows the way. Trends Ecol. Evol. 18: 435–438.
  • Balmford, A., K. J. Gaston, S. Blyth, A. James & V. Kapos. 2003. Global variation in terrestrial conservation costs, conservation benefits, and unmet conservation needs. PNAS 100: 1046–1050.
  • Garnett, S.T., Crowley, G.M. & Balmford, A. 2003. Costs of conservation of Australian threatened birds. BioScience 53: 658–665.
  • Balmford, A., Green, R.E. & Jenkins, M. 2003. Measuring the changing state of nature. Trends Ecol. Evol. 18: 326–330.
  • Balmford, A. & Whitten, T. 2003. Who should pay for tropical conservation, and how could the costs be met? Oryx 37: 238–250.
  • Crane, P., Balmford, A., Beddington, J., Finlay, B., Gaston, K., Green, R., Harvey, P., Knapp, S., Lawton, J., Mace, G., Magurran, A., May, R., Lughadha, E., Raven, P., Reynolds, J., Turner, K., Heap, R., Quinn, R. & Banes, R. 2003. Measuring Biodiversity for Conservation. Royal Society: London.
  • Moore, J.L., Balmford, A., Brooks, T., Burgess, N., Hansen, L.A., Rahbek, C. & Williams, P.H. 2003. The performance of sub-Saharan African vertebrates as indicator groups for conservation priority setting. Conserv. Biol. 17: 207–218.
  • Moore, J.L., Folkmann, M., Balmford, A., Brooks, T., Burgess, N., Hansen, L., Rahbek, C., Williams, P. & Krarup, J. 2003. Heuristic and optimal solutions for set-covering problems in conservation biology. Ecography 26: 595–601.
  • Smith, R.J., Muir, R.D.J., Walpole, M.J., Balmford, A. & Leader-Williams, N. 2003. Governance and the loss of biodiversity. Nature 426: 67–70.
  • Williams, P.H., Moore, J.L., Brooks, Stran, H., Amico, J.D., Oglethorpe, J., Wisz, M., Burgess, N.D., Balmford, A. & Rahbek, C. 2003. Integrating biodiversity priorities with conflicting socioeconomic values in the Guinean-Congolian forest region. Biodivers. Conserv. 12: 1297–1320.


  • Balmford, A. 2002. Selecting sites for protection. In: Norris, K. & Pain, D. (Eds.) Conserving Bird Biodiversity. General Principles and their Application. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. pp. 74–104 .
  • Balmford, A., Bruner, A., Cooper, P., Costanza, R., Farber, S., Green, R.E., Jenkins, M., Jefferiss, P., Jessamy, V., Madden, J., Munro, K., Myers, N., Naeem, S., Paavola, J., Rayment, M., Rosendo, S., Roughgarden, J., Trumper, K. & Turner, R.K. 2002. Why conserving wild nature makes economic sense. Science 297: 950–953.
  • Balmford, A., Clegg, L., Coulson, T. & Taylor, J. 2002. Why conservationists should heed Pokémon. Science 295: 2367.
  • Burgess, N.D., Rahbek, C., Larsen, F.W., Williams, P. & Balmford, A. 2002. How much of the vertebrate diversity of sub-Saharan Africa is catered for by recent conservation proposals? Biol. Conserv. 107: 327–339.
  • Johnson, C.N., Delean, S. & Balmford, A. 2002. Phylogeny and the selectivity of extinction in Australian marsupials. Anim. Conserv. 5: 135–142.
  • Moore, J.L., Manne, L., Brooks, T., Burgess, N.D., Davies, R., Hansen, L.A., Rahbek, C., Williams, P. & Balmford, A. 2002. The distribution of cultural and biological diversity in Africa. Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B. 269: 1645–1653.


  • Amos, W. & Balmford, A. 2001. When does conservation genetics matter? Heredity 87: 257–265.
  • Balmford, A., Moore, J.L., Brooks, T., Burgess, N., Hansen, L.A., Lovett, J.C. Tokumine, S., Williams, P.H. & Rahbek, C. 2001. People and biodiversity in Africa. Science 293: 1591–1592.
  • Balmford, A., Moore, J.L., Brooks, T., Burgess, N., Hansen, L.A., Williams, P.H. & Rahbek, C. 2001. Conservation conflicts across Africa. Science 291: 2616–2619.
  • Brooks, T.M., Balmford, A., Burgess, N., Fjeldså, J., Hansen, L.A., Moore, J., Rahbek, C. & Williams, P. 2001. Toward a blueprint for conservation in Africa. BioScience 51: 613–624.
  • James, A.N., Gaston, K.J. & Balmford, A. 2001. Can we afford to conserve biodiversity? BioScience 51: 43–52.
  • Brooks, T., Balmford, A., Burgess, N., Hansen, L.A., Moore, J., Rahbek, C., Williams, P., Bennun, L., Byaruhanga, A., Kasoma, P., Njoroge, P., Pomeroy, D. & Wondafrash, M. 2001. Conservation priorities for birds and biodiversity: do East African Important Bird Areas represent species diversity in other terrestrial vertebrate groups? Ostrich S15: 3–12.
  • Moore, J., Balmford, A., Brooks, T., Burgess, N., Folkmann, M., Hansen, L.A., Krarup, J., Lovett, J.C., Tokumine, S., Williams, P., Woodward, F.I. & Rahbek, C. 2001. Complementarity analyses reveal extent of conservation conflict in Africa. Science Online, available at
  • Pimm, S.L., Ayres, M., Balmford, A., Branch, G., Brandon, K., Brooks, T., Bustamante, R., Costanza, R., Cowling, R., Curran, L.M., Dobson, A., Farber, S., Fonseca, G., Gascon, C., Kitching, R., McNeely, J,, Lovejoy, T., Mittermeier, R., Myers, N., Patz, J.A., Raffle, B., Rapport, D., Raven, P., Roberts, C., Rodríguez, J.P., Rylands, A., Tucker, C., Samper, C., Stiassny, M.L.J., Safina, C., Supriatna, J., Wall, D. & Wilcove, D. 2001. Can we defy nature's end? Science 293: 2207–2208.


  • Balmford, A. 2000. Global Biodiversity: Earth’s Living Resources in the 21st Century by B. Groombridge and M.D. Jenkins 2000. World Conservation Press: Cambridge, UK. Oryx 34: 344.
  • Balmford, A. 2000. Separating fact from artefact in analyses of zoo visitor preferences. Conserv. Biol. 14: 1193–1195.
  • Balmford, A. 2000. Priorities for captive breeding - which mammals should board the ark?  In: Entwistle, A. & Dunstone, N. (Eds.) Priorities for the conservation of mammalian diversity. Has the panda had its day? Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. pp. 291–307.
  • Balmford, A., Aldridge, D., Brooke, M. & Green, R. 2000. Cambridge and conservation science: establishing a centre of excellence to tackle the global extinction crisis. Cambridge 45: 33–37.
  • Balmford, A., Gaston, K.J., Rodrigues, A.S.L. & James, A. 2000. Integrating costs of conservation into international priority setting. Conserv. Biol. 14: 597–605.
  • Balmford, A., Lewis, M.J., de L. Brooke, M., Thomas, A.L.R. & Johnson, C.N. 2000. Experimental analyses of sexual and natural selection on short tails in a polygynous warbler. Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B. 267: 1121–1128.
  • Balmford, A., Lyon, A.J.E. & Lang, R.M. 2000. Testing the higher-taxon approach to conservation planning in a megadiverse group: the macrofungi. Biol. Conserv. 93: 209–217.
  • da Fonseca, G.A.B., Balmford, A., Bibby, C., Boitani, L., Corsi, F., Brooks, T., Gascon, C., Olivieri, S., Mittermeier, R.A., Burgess, N., Dinerstein, E., Olson, D., Hannah, L., Lovett, J., Moyer, D., Rahbek, C., Stuart, S. & Williams, P. 2000. ...following Africa's lead in setting priorities. Nature 405: 393–394.
  • James, A.N., Gaston, K.J. & Balmford, A. 2000. Why private institutions alone will not do enough to protect biodiversity. Nature 404: 120.
  • Jones, T.M., Balmford, A. & Quinnell, R.J. 2000. Adaptive female choice for middle-aged mates in a lekking sandfly. Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B. 267: 681–686.
  • Mace, G.M., Balmford, A., Boitani, L., Cowlishaw, G., Dobson, A.P., Faith, D.P., Gaston, K.J., Humphries, C.J., Vane-Wright, R.I., Williams, P.H., Lawton, J.H., Margules, C.R., May, R.M., Nicholls, A.O., Possingham, H.P., Rahbek, C. & van Jaarsveld, A.S. 2000. It's time to work together and stop duplicating conservation efforts. Nature 405: 393.
  • Mace, G. & Balmford, A. 2000. Patterns and processes in contemporary mammalian extinction. In: Entwistle, A. &  Dunstone, N. (Eds.) Priorities for the conservation of mammalian diversity. Has the panda had its day? Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. pp. 27–52.
  • Williams, P., Wisz, M., Rahbek, C., Moore, J., Hansen, L., Burgess, N., Brooks, T. & Balmford, A. 2000. Applying quantitative methods of priority setting. In: Kamdem Toham, A., Olson, D., Blom, A., Trowbridge, L., d’Amico, J., Burgess, N., Thieme, M., Abell, R., Carroll, R.W., Gartlan, S., Langrand, O., Mikala Mussavu, R. & O’Hara, D. (Eds.) Biological Priorities for Conservation in the Guinean-Congolian Forest and Freshwater Region. World Wildlife Fund-US: Washington.


  • Balmford, A. 1999. A landmark text. Review of Sutherland, W.J. (Ed.) 1998. Conservation Science and Action. Blackwell Science: Oxford. Conserv. Biol. 13: 687.
  • Balmford, A. 1999. (Less and less) great expectations. Oryx 33: 87–88.
  • Balmford, A. & Gaston, K.J. 1999. Why biodiversity surveys are good value. Nature 398: 204–205.
  • Brooks, T., Tobias, J. & Balmford, A. 1999. Deforestation and bird extinctions in the Atlantic forest. Anim. Conserv. 2: 211–222.
  • James, A.N., Gaston, K.J. & Balmford, A. 1999. Balancing the Earth's accounts. Nature 401: 323–324.


  • Balmford, A. 1998. On hotspots and the use of indicators for reserve selection. Trends Ecol. Evol. 13: 409.
  • Balmford, A., Mace, G.M. & Ginsberg, J.R. 1998. The challenges to conservation in a changing world: putting processes on the map. In: Mace, G.M., Balmford, A. & Ginsberg, J.R. (Eds.) Conservation in a Changing World. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. pp. 1–28 .
  • Mace, G.M., Balmford, A. & Ginsberg, J.R. (Eds.) 1998. Conservation in a Changing World. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
  • Lwanga, J.S., Balmford, A. & Badaza, R. 1998. Assessing fern diversity: relative species richness and its environmental correlates in Uganda. Biodiv. Conserv. 7: 1387–1398.
  • Howard, P.C., Viskanic, P., Davenport, T.R.B., Kigenyi, F.W., Baltzer, M., Dickinson, C.J., Lwanga, J.S., Matthews, R.A. & Balmford, A. 1998. Complementarity and the use of indicators for reserve selection in Uganda. Nature 394: 472–475.
  • Jones, T.M., Quinnell, R.J. & Balmford, A. 1998. Fisherian flies: the benefits of female choice in a lekking sandfly. Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B. 265: 1651–1657.


  • Balmford, A., Mace, G.M. & Leader-Williams, N. 1997. Priority-setting for ex situ conservation. Conserv. Biol. 11: 593–594.


  • Balmford, A. 1996. Extinction filters and current resilience: the significance of past selection pressures for conservation biology. Trends Ecol. Evol. 11: 193–196.
  • Balmford, A., Green, M.J.B. & Murray, M.G. 1996. Using higher-taxon richness as a surrogate for species richness: I. Regional tests. Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B. 263: 1267–1274.
  • Balmford, A., Jayasuriya, A.H.M. & Green, M.J.B. 1996. Using higher-taxon richness as a surrogate for species richness: II. Local applications. Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B. 263: 1571–1575.
  • Balmford, A., Mace, G.M. & Leader-Williams, N. 1996. Redesigning the ark: setting priorities for captive breeding. Conserv. Biol. 10: 719–727.
  • Brooks, T. & Balmford, A. 1996. Atlantic forest extinctions. Nature 380: 115.


  • Balmford, A., Leader-Williams, N. & Green, M.J.B. 1995. Parks or arks: where to conserve threatened mammals? Biodiv. Conserv. 4: 595–607.
  • Balmford, A. & Long, A. 1995. Across-country analyses of biodiversity congruence and current conservation effort in the tropics. Conserv. Biol. 9: 1539–1547.
  • Thomas, A.L.R. & Balmford, A. 1995. How natural selection shapes birds' tails. Am. Nat. 146: 848–868.


  • Balmford, A., Jones, I.L. & Thomas, A.L.R. 1994. How to compensate for costly sexually-selected tails: the origin of sexually dimorphic wings in long-tailed birds. Evolution 48: 1062–1070.
  • Balmford, A. & Long, A. 1994. Avian endemism and forest loss. Nature 372: 623–624.


  • Balmford, A., Bartos, L., Brotherton, P., Herrman, H., Lancingerova, J., Mika, J. & Zeeb, U. 1993. When to stop lekking: density-related variation in the rutting behaviour of sika deer. J. Zool., Lond. 231: 652–656.
  • Balmford, A., Deutsch, J.C., Nefdt, R. & Clutton-Brock, T. 1993. Testing hotspot models of lek evolution: data from three species of ungulates. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 33: 57–65.
  • Balmford, A., Jones, I.L. & Thomas, A.L.R. 1993. On avian asymmetry: evidence of natural selection for symmetrical wings and tails in birds. Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B. 252: 245–251.
  • Balmford, A., Thomas, A.L.R. & Jones, I.L. 1993. Aerodynamics and the evolution of long tails in birds. Nature 361: 628–630.


  • Balmford, A. 1992. Social dispersion and lekking in Uganda kob. Behaviour 120: 177–191.
  • Balmford, A., Albon, S.D. & Blakeman, S. 1992. Correlates of male mating success and female choice in a lek-breeding antelope. Behav. Ecol. 3: 112–123.
  • Balmford, A., Leader-Williams, N. & Green, M.J.B. 1992. Protected areas of Afrotropical forest: history, status and prospects. In: Collins, M. & Sayer, J.A. (Eds.) Tropical Rain Forests - an Atlas for Conservation. Vol. II - Africa. MacMillan: London. pp. 69–80.
  • Balmford, A., Rosser, A. & Albon, S.D. 1992. Correlates of female choice in resource-defending antelope. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 31: 107–114.
  • Balmford, A. & Thomas, A. 1992. Swallowing ornamental asymmetry. Nature 359: 487.
  • Balmford, A. & Turyaho, M. 1992. Predation risk and lek-breeding in Uganda kob. Anim. Behav. 44: 117–127.
  • Evans, M.I. & Balmford, A. 1992. Birds in the Ishasha sector of Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. Scopus 16: 34–49.
  • Georgiadis, N. & Balmford, A. 1992. The calculus of conserving biodiversity. Trends Ecol. Evol. 7: 321–322.


  • Balmford, A. 1991. Mate choice on leks. Trends Ecol. Evol. 6: 87–92.
  • Balmford, A. & Blakeman, S. 1991. Horn and body size of topi in relation to a variable mating system. Afr. J. Ecol. 29: 37–42.
  • Balmford, A. & Read, A.F. 1991. Testing alternative models of sexual selection through female choice. Trends Ecol. Evol. 6: 274–276.


  • Balmford, A.P. 1990. Lekking in Uganda kob. Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge.
  • Pemberton, J.M. & Balmford, A.P. 1987. Lekking in fallow deer. J. Zool., Lond. 213: 762–765.
  • Quinnell, R. & Balmford, A. 1988. A future for Palawan's forests? Oryx 22: 30–36.
Professor of Conservation Science
Professor Andrew  Balmford

Contact Details

Room 3.03, David Attenborough Building, Pembroke Street
01223 (3)31770